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Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik nebst einer methodologischen Einleitung. . .  Two volumes in one
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Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik nebst einer methodologischen Einleitung. . . Two volumes in one

By SCHLEIDEN, Matthias Jacob

Leipzig: E A. Brockhaus for Wilhelm Engelmann, 1842. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 1842-1843. 8vo (210 x 130 mm). [i-xi] xii-xxvi, [1] 2-289 [3]; [i-v] vi-xvii, [1] 2-564 pp., including half-titles, errata leaf at end of vol. I, pp. 225-240 misbound after p.272 in vol. I, errata on pp. [559]-564 in vol. II. Contemporary half cloth over marbled boards, spine lettered in gilt (head of spine chipped, extremities little rubbed and chipped, upper inner hinge cracked, corners bumped, front endpaper repaired, binding somewhat weak, tape residue to boards). Light browning and occasional minor spotting of text, some dog-earing and creasing to lower corner, little staining of second half title from formerly inserted pressed plant. Provenance: Botanische Staatssammlung München (library stamps to front flyleaf, half-title and some text pages, shelf mark in pencil to half-title). Still very good copy. Collated complete. ---- Dibner 31; Horblit 93b; Sparrow 177; Norman 1908; Pritzel 8224; Waller 11732; D.S.B XII, p.174-5. - FIRST EDITION, AND EXCEPTIONALLY RARE, of Schleiden's most extensive and influential botanical work. Schleiden's botany textbook "introduced new pedagogical standards that were to dominate the teaching of botany for years... Schleiden considered the inductive method the only valid one in biology, and the first part of the book constitutes an important document for the study of the methodology of natural history... The entire structure of Schleiden's textbook was fundamentally new. The lengthy work begins with a study of the material elements of the plant. Next there is a large section on plant cytology [which expands upon Schleiden's important 1838 article on cell formation], and then a treatment of morphology and organology. The book, which established the teaching of botany on a completely new basis, was often reprinted and appeared in various translations and adaptations" (DSB XII, p.174-5). "Schleiden eagerly applied himself to the microscopic study of plant structure and growth. From it he derived the imponant conclusion that the cell was the basic unit of any living organism, plant or animal. The latter were no more than aggregates of individual, independent, complete beings - the cells themselves." (Dibner 31). The separate 3-leaf errata in vol. II that is mentioned in Norman 1908 appears to be a ghost (the errata is found on pp. 559-564). This work is quite rare. The last copy recorded at auction was the Norman copy (Christie's, New York, 1998, lot 1289, sold USD 4025.00). - Visit our website for additional images and information.

$9969.30

Bestimmung des Brechungs- und Farbenzerstreuungs- Vermögens verschiedener Glasarten
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Bestimmung des Brechungs- und Farbenzerstreuungs- Vermögens verschiedener Glasarten

By FRAUNHOFER, Joseph

München: Lentner, 1817. 1st Edition. Soft cover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Soft cover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. In: Denkschriften der königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften zu München für die Jahre 1814 und 1815, vol. 5, pp. 193-226, 3 engraved folding plates (2 folding). München: Lentner, 1817. 4to (270 x 230 mm), whole volume [8], xlii, 62, 226, 91 [1] pp., including half-title, general title page, 4-page index and 13 engraved plates. Original wrappers with printed spine label (little dust-soiled and spotted, spine ends slightly frayed), all pages uncut. Small worm hole in front wrapper extending into half-title without affecting text, occasional minor spotting, page edges a bit dust-soiled and frayed at lower edge, two of Fraunhofer's plates somewhat browned as usual, otherwise generally crisp and clean. Provenance: Peter and Margarete Braune (tipped-in bookplate on inner front wrapper). An exceptional, unsophisticated and wide-margined copy. ---- Dibner 153; PMM 278a; Sparrow 70; Norman 836 (offprint); DSB V, p.143. - FIRST EDITION AND OF GREAT RARITY, of a fundamental paper in astrophysics. The journal issue of Fraunhofer's milestone paper is even rarer than the offprint issue because the journal appeard in a very small print run. We can trace only two copies of the journal issue at auction in the past 30 years (Richard Green Library sale, Christies 2008, and the Norman Library Sale, Christies, 1998). Fraunhofer, a skilled optician and designer of precision optical instruments, described in this paper, read before the Bavarian Academy in 1815, his accidental discovery of the absorption lines of the solar spectrum. In 1814, while conducting tests on the dispersion and refractive index for different kinds of optical glass, Fraunhofer "observed the effect of the refracting medium on light, comparing the effect of light from flames with light from the sun, and found that the solar spectrum was crossed with many fine dark lines, a few of which William Hyde Wollaston had observed and reported upon in 1802. [Wollaston had incorrectly interpreted the lines as borders between the colors]. Designating the more distinct lines with capital letters... he mapped many of the 574 lines that he observed between B on the red end and H on the violet end of the spectrum. Sometime later he noted that some of these lines appeared to correspond to the bright doublet of lines in many flame spectra; yet he noted further that while the pattern observed for the sun and planets [being reflected sunlight] appeared identical, the patterns for the sun, Sirius, and other bright stars differed from one another. He concluded that the lines originated in the nature of the light source. "These observations stimulated considerable interest for the next half-century among natural philosophers, whose speculations culminated in the classical explanation of absorption and emission spectra made by Kirchoff and Bunsen in 1859" (DSB). The dark lines, whose exact explanation has never been explained, are still known as Fraunhofer lines. Their discoverer continued to explore and map them during the following years; using a grating device of this own invention he eventually was able to determine the wavelengths of specific colors of light and to make highly precise measurements of dispersion (see below). Although his research was conducted with the purely practical aim of producing the finest possible optical instruments, Fraunhofer's achievements "justify describing him as the founder of astrophysics" (PMM). Plate 2, reproducing Fraunhofer's map of the lines of the solar spectrum, is the FIRST ILLUSTRATION OF THE SOLAR SPECTRUM.

$24369.40

Essais sur l'Hygromètrie
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Essais sur l'Hygromètrie

By SAUSSURE, Horace Benedict de

Neuchatel: Samuel Fauche pere et fils, 1783. 1st Edition. Soft cover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Soft cover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (220 x 148 mm). xii, 524 (i.e. 506) pp., 2 folding engraved plates and 11 tables (8 folding, 4 within pagination), some mispaginations (pp. 129-130, 155, 164-172 omitted). Signatures: a4 A-2H8 2I5. Contemporary brown wrappers, spine with ink-lettered paper label (heavy chipping and wear to spine, some fraying and dust-soiling of outer page margins, rear wrapper chipped), protected in custom-made slip case. scattered marginal spotting, occasional toning. All pages uncut. Text and plates quite crisp and clean, only very minor occasional spotting or soiling, two leaves (Aa2, Gg7) with closed tears without loss of text (one repaired). Provenance: Lagarde (cancelled ink inscription dated 1799 on title-page); Giancarlo Beltrame Library; pencil notes to half-title. A very good unsophisticated copy, collated complete. ---- Norman 1894; Sparrow, Milestones of Science Books 174; Roller-G. II, 398. - FIRST (OCTAVO) EDITION of a collection of 4 essays dealing with the hair hygrometer invented by Saussure, general principles of hygrometry and evaporation, and related meteorological experiments. Content: I. Description d'un nouvel hygometre comparable. II. Theorie de l'hygrometrie. III. Theorie de l'evaporation. IV. Application des theories precedentes a quelques phenomenes de la meteorologie. "Saussure, the Alpine explorer, founded hygrometry, the branch of physics that deals with the measurement of the humidity of air and gases. He invented the hair hygrometer - the only type of absorption hygrometer widely used in meteorology - and he was the first to prove that air expands and decreases in specific weight as its moisture content increases. This work describes Saussure's pioneering experiments with his new instrument as well as its application to meteorology." (Norman). In 1783 this work appeared simultaneously in octavo and quarto format, but by tradition the quarto format edition has been considered first. - Visit our website for additional images and information.

$1107.70

Méchanique Analitique
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Méchanique Analitique

By LAGRANGE, Joseph Louis

Paris: chez la Veuve Desaint, 1788. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. 4to (254 x 200 mm). xii, 512 pp., including half title. Contemporary French mottled calf, spine with floral gilt decoration, 5 raised bands and gilt-lettered label (lower joint of front board partially split and with old repair, little wear to extremities, corners scuffed), marbled endpapers, red-stained edges. Internally clean with only little browning and very minor occasional spotting, faint dampstain to upper gutter of first three and the final gatherings including title-page. Provenance: illegible stamp and manuscript shelf mark to title page. A near fine copy in well preserved binding of the time. ---- Dibner 112; Horblit 61; Norman 1257; Sparrow 120; Honeyman 1880; En Francais dans le texte 179. - FIRST EDITION OF LAGRANGE'S FOUNDATION WORK ON ANALYTICAL MECHANICS. Lagrange's masterpiece was an extension on Newton's work on mechanics. In it he moulded theoretical mechanics into a system from which fundamental equations describing the motions of any systems of bodies could be derived. To achieve this Lagrange combined the principle of virtual velocities with d'Alembert's principle. He thereby set down the principle of virtual velocities as applied to mechanics. In his preface, Lagrange draws attention to the absence of diagrams in the book, which he believed the lucidity of his own presentation had rendered superfluous. "With the appearance of the Mechanique Analitique in 1788, Lagrange proposed to reduce the theory of mechanics and the art of solving problems in that field to general formulas, the mere development of which would yield all the equations necessary for the solution of every problem... [it] united and presented from a single point of view the various principles of mechanics, demonstrated their connection and mutual dependence, and made it possible to judge their validity and scope" (DSB).

$8307.75

Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären
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Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären

By GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von

Gotha: Carl Wilhelm Ettinger, 1790. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (210 x 130 mm). [6], 86, [2] pp. including final blank. Bound in fine 20th century green morocco by G. Dubois d'Enghien, spine with 5 raised bands, gilt decorated and with gilt lettering in first compartment, boards with gilt ruling, rich floral gilt decoration to board inner margins, marbled endpapers. Housed in custom-made cassette. Text generally crisp and clean, with very minor age-toning and occasional faint minor spotting, tiny paper flaw to leaf C7. A fine wide-margined copy in a gorgeous binding. ---- Sparrow 86; Norman 913; DSB V, 241ff; Hagen 211; Osler 2767; Pritzel 3452; Kippenberg I, 368. - FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, with Goethe's name printed above the title on title-page. Although not the first written, the Versuch was Goethe's first published testimony of his scientific interests. In it he attempted to explain the unity of type in different plant species by arguing that all plants derive from a mysterious "archetypal plant", or "Urpflanze", individual genera being modifications of this ideal type" Goethe thought that the biologist, by comparing a large number of plant and animal forms, can obtain a clear idea of the underlying principles... What Goethe sought in biology and zoology was nothing less than a theory that would explain all living forms" (DSB). Goethe's fundamentally Aristotelian concept of an ideal type had a considerable influence on the later development of botany. Erste Ausgabe. - Verlegerisches Kalkül und persönliche Differenzen ließen Göschen davon absehen, das Werk selbst zu drucken. Eine 2. Ausgabe erschien erst 1817. "Hier entstand also jenes Werk, das nach einer Bemerkung Auguste St.-Hilaires zu der kleinen Zahl der Bücher gehört, welche nicht nur ihren Urheber unsterblich machen, sondern die selber unsterblich sind. Dies Werk, auf das bis heute auf jeder Lehrkanzel für Botanik und in jeder Systematik des Pflanzenlebens Bezug genommen wird, ein Werk, das bei anfänglicher Ablehnung die Gegenbewegungen des Jhdts. alle überstand, ja heute als besonders weitsichtig anzusehen ist" (G. Benn). - Visit our website for additional images and information.

$2436.94

Beiträge zur Phytogenesis
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Beiträge zur Phytogenesis

By SCHLEIDEN, Matthias Jacob

Berlin: Veit et Comp, 1838. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. In: Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin 5, Heft 2 (1838), pp 137-76. Includes two etched and aquatint plates (nos. III and IV) on one folding sheet. Berlin: Veit et Comp., 1838. 8vo (209x128 mm). Whole volume: [2], cxcviii, 608 pp. 16 plates on 15 sheets. Pp. 605-8 bound before p.1 . Contemporary marbled boards, rebacked and repaired. Light browning, occasional faint spotting. Provenance: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle Paris (stamps to general title-page). A fine copy of an exceedingly rare paper, only one other copy is recorded to have appeared at auctions in the past 50 years (Norman sale, 1998, offprint issue, $18,400). Both, PMM and Sparrow list the journal issue. ---- PMM 307a; Sparrow 175; Norman 1907 (offprint issue); Hughes, History of Cytology, 37ff; Garrison-Morton 112; DSB XII, p.173-174. - THE VERY RARE FIRST EDITION of Schleiden's enunciation of his cell theory, in which he stated that the cell is the basic unit of plant life. A well-to-do botany professor who gave up academia to devote himself full-time to a successful career as lecturer and writer of popular scientific works, Schleiden made a name for himself through the present paper, which provoked wide discussion and was quickly translated into French and English. Schleiden was the first to postulate that plant tissue is composed of aggregates of individual cells, and attempted in this article to describe the development of the vegetable cell. His mistaken view based on a theory "as old as the study of the cell itself" (DSB), was that the cell develops from a nucleus or "cytoblast' which crystallizes within an amorphous primary liquid composed of sugar, gum and mucous. Although this theory of spontaneous generation of the cell was erroneous, Schleiden's work marked an important stage in the development of modem cell theory. A year later Theodor Schwann was to bring it one step further with his conclusion that cells were the basic unit of animal as well as plant life, and the two are generally regarded as co-founders of the cell or Schleiden-Schwann theory.

$3101.56

Traité de Mécanique Céleste
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Traité de Mécanique Céleste

By LAPLACE, Pierre Simon

Paris: Bachelier et al., 1799. 1st Edition. Soft cover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Soft cover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. 7 volumes and 4 supplements, with 5 volumes bound in original wrappers and 2 volumes bound in full calf. Paris: Crapelet, An VII [1799] (VII, vol. Ia and IIa), Bachelier, 1829 (vol. Ib and IIb), Crapelet for J.B.M. Duprat, 1802 (vol. III), Courcier 1805 (vol. IV), Bachelier, 1825 (vol. V). 4to (270 x 215 mm). Half-title to each volume, vol. III with "Supplément au Traité de mécanique céleste .présenté au Bureau des Longitudes, le 17 août 1808" (pp. 1-24) bound at end; vol. IV with folding engraved plate and two supplements, "Supplément au dixième livre du Traité de mécanique céleste. Sur l'action capillaire" (pp. [2], 1-65); and Supplément à la théorie de l'action capillaire (pp. 1-78), one unnumbered leaf with "Table des matières" on recto and the "errata" on verso bound at end; vol. V with "Supplément au 5e volume du Traité de mécanique céleste..." dated 1827 (pp. [2], 1-35) bound at end. Vol. V without the section titles as usual (not issued in this print). Vols. Ib, IIb and III to V in the original pink mottled wrappers with original printed spine labels and additional hand-lettered shelf-mark labels, pages untrimmed, housed in a custom-made cassette (spines sun-faded, chipping and wear to spines and extremities, wrappers partially torn with some loss). Vols. Ia and IIa in contemporary marbled calf with rich gilt-decoration, gilt-lettered morocco spine labels and marbled endpapers (spine leather partly soiled and darkened, spine ends chipped, upper hinge of vol. I partly cracked towards head). Upper blank corner of half-title in vol. Ia torn. A few pages little browned, occasional minor spotting, light dampstaining to top blank margin of a few gatherings, otherwise quite crisp and clean. A very fine set, mostly in original condition, rarely found as complete as here with all the supplements present. ---- Dibner, Heralds of Science 14; Grolier/Horblit 63; PMM 252; Sparrow, Milestones of Science 125; Norman 1277; Roberts-Trent, p.197. LAPLACE'S FUNDAMENTAL WORK ON CELESTIAL MECHANICS. FIRST EDITIONS OF ALL PARTS, with the first two volumes Ia and IIa in FIRST ISSUE and bound around 1800 in fine calf. Volumes III to V together with the 2nd edition of volumes Ib and IIb form a uniform set as issued. Published over a period of 27 years, Laplace's monumental work codified and developed the theories and achievements of Newton, Euler, d'Alembert and his contemporary Lagrange. In the tradition of Newton's Principia, Laplace "applied his analytical mathematical theories to celestial bodies and concluded that the apparent changes in the motion of planets and their satellites are changes of long periods, and that the solar system is in all probability very stable" (Dibner 14). Newton remained uncertain with respect to the continuity of our solar system. In this work, Laplace also offered explanations unsolved by his predecessors and contemporaries. He "offered a brilliant explanation of the secular inequalities of the mean motion of the moon about the earth - a problem which Euler and Lagrange had failed to solve. He proved that these irregularities are connected with certain solar actions and changes in the orbit of the earth. He also investigated the theory of the tides and calculated from them the mass of the moon" (PMM 252). The first four volumes of the work appeared from 1799 through 1805, and contain the laws of mechanics for their application to the motions and figures of the heavenly bodies. The final parts of the fourth volume and the entire fifth volume really constitute a separate work and contain important material on physics not already included in the original sequence. Our set contains the first state title-pages in the first two volumes Ia and IIa, with French Republican dates only and without the added Berlin imprint (printed for European distribution). Only few sets have survived in its original wrappers. Ou set can best be compared with the Norman set which has the firt 4 volumes in original wrap.

$9415.45

Études sur la Bière, ses Maladies, causes qui les provoquent procédé pour la rendre inaltérable, avec une Théorie nouvelle de la Fermentation
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Études sur la Bière, ses Maladies, causes qui les provoquent procédé pour la rendre inaltérable, avec une Théorie nouvelle de la Fermentation

By PASTEUR, Louis

Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1876. 1st Edition. Soft cover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Soft cover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (240 x 156 mm). xiii, 383 [1], 4 pp. including half-title, 12 engraved plates, illustrations in text, 4-pages advertisement bound at end. Book block uncut and unopened except for two gatherings. Original publisher's orange printed wrappers (somewhat soiled and rubbed at extremities). Text fresh and unspotted, slight offsetting from pasted catalogue snippet on inner cover to half-title, a few pages with dust soiling at edges or brown lining from previously inserted paper slips. A very good and highly unsophisticated copy. Very rare in this state. ---- Sparrow 158; Garrison-Morton 2485; Heirs of Hippocrates 1018; Norman 1658; Cushing P-139; Duveen 461. Osler 1550. Thornton & Tully, p. 184. Waller 10966. - FIRST EDITION of Pasteur's important study of fermentation. Pasteur discovered that contaminated beer was caused by microorganisms in the air and not spontaneously generated as previously believed. He perfected a method of preparing pure yeast, acknowledging that a small quantity of oxygen was important for brewing. Our copy has advertisements on rear cover running up to 1923, indicating a later issue, but includes the ad for Pasteur's "Études sur la maladie des vers a soie" (1870) on final 4 pages.

$720.01

Theory of the Earth; or an Investigation of the Laws in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe
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Theory of the Earth; or an Investigation of the Laws in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe

By HUTTON, James

Edinburgh: J. Dickson, 1788. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. In: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 1 (1788), pp. 210-304 [2], including 2 engraved plates and extra leaf of plate explanation bound after. Edinburgh: J. Dickson, 1788. 4to (265 x 210 mm). Entire volume: xii, 100, 1-304 [2] 305-336, 1-209 [3] pp., general title with engraved vignette, final errata leaf and 4 engraved plates. Text only very little browned, occasonal slight foxing (mainly to first leaves, the Hutton paper only little affected). Contemporary tree calf, gilt red morocco spine label (hinges repaired, 1 morocco label renewed, extremities rubbed). [Joined]: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 2 (1790), viii, [2], 80, 244, 267 [1] pp., 1 folding letterpress table and 9 engraved plates (7 folding); Vol. 3 (1794), vii [1], 148, 279 [1], 162 [2] pp., 22 engraved plate (14 folding); and Vol. 4 (1798), vii [1], 39 [1], 87 [1], 222, 121 [3] pp., 12 engraved plates (7 folding). All uniformly bound in fine tree calf with gilt-lettered red morocco labels and blue-sprinkled edges. With errata leaf to each volume, but bound without general half titles. Very little browning to text, occasional minor foxing. Provenance: James Whatman (armorial bookplate to front pastedowns); The library of Hugh Selbourne (small ink stamp to titles verso and p.51). A fine set in uniform contemporary binding, printed on strong paper. Completely unrestored, unstained and unmarked. ---- Dibner 93; Sparrow 107; Norman 1130 (offprint); PMM 247 (note); ESTC T145935, T145936, T145937, T153067; Challinor 40; Ward & Carozzi 1161. - FIRST PUBLICATION OF HUTTON'S FAMOUS PAPER NOW REGARDED AS THE FOUNDATION OF MODERN GEOLOGY. Hutton's paper was expanded into a three-volume work, Theory of the Earth in 1795, published shortly before his death. His fundamental conception - now accepted as a matter of course, but then entirely new - was the doctrine of uniformitarianism. The formation of the surface of the earth is one continuous process which can be studied entirely from terrestrial materials without cosmological or supernatural intervention (PMM). The paper is divided into four parts: the first demonstrates that the Earth is a unique creation by a divine Creator consisting of core, water, crust and air, all of which in turn are governed by basic powers such as centrifugal forces, light, heat, cold and condensation, all of which keep the Earth in balance; part II deals with the consolidation of strata, refuting the theory of aqueous solution and crystallization, substituting heat and fusion as the relevant processes; the third part investigates land production above sea level, demonstrating subterranean heat is universal and sufficient to achieve uplift; and finally, Hutton rejects catastrophism, and embraces a uniformitarian view whereby processes observable in the present have always been at work in the past, and will continue to do so in the future. "It firmly established the conception of the geological cycle and insisted on the length of geological time." (Challinor p.69). A few other important papers by Hutton are contained in the other volumes of the Transactions. One of the more important is his 'Observations on granite' (presented to members of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and published in vol. III of the Transactions in 1794), in which he shares his views on the origin of igneous rocks. "During his field work, Hutton was able to find unequivocal evidence to show that molten granite had invaded the surrounding stratified rock, that is to say it was intrusive igneous rock of younger age than the country rocks. This represents the first demonstration of the class of rocks that we now refer to as intrusive igneous rocks" (M. Brown & P. M. Piccoli, The Origin of Granites and related Rocks, Abstracts Third Hutton Symposium, 1995, p. 1).

$10523.15

Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien
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Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien

By WERNER, Abraham Gottlob

Leipzig: Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius, 1774. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (178 x 105 mm). [1-5] 6-302 [2] pp. 8 printed folding tables. Errata on T8v. Early 19th century paper card binding with paper label to spine (extremities rubbed, corners bumped, chipping to spine probably due to removed label). Internally only little age-toned, a few occasional ink corrections in contemporary hand. Provenance: Akademischer Verein und Burschenschaft "Glück Auf" Freiberg (old library stamp to title page, shelf mark and 3 stamps to endpaper). A fresh, crisp and virtually unspotted copy internally. ---- Dibner 91; Evans 64; Norman 2205; Sparrow 196; Honeyman 3106; D.S.B. XIV, p.257; Sotheran II, 9271; Wilson, Mineral Collecting, 99-100; Ward-Carozzi 2299; Ferchl 575; Zittel 56. FIRST EDITION of Werner's very rare work in which he classified the outward characteristics of minerals and established standards of quantification which continued to be used into the 19th-century. He is best known as the author of an influential oceanic theory of the origin of world's crust, which gave rise to the Neptunist-Vulcanist theory which was to dominate 19th-century geology (Norman). The first book by "the most renowned geologist and mineralogist of his day" (Zittel); Wilson describes Werner as "the father of modern mineralogy." "Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien was not a mineral system but a classification of external characteristics of minerals, designed to aid the worker of the student in the field. In it Werner gave an unprecedented number of external characteristics with definitions, usually accompanied by homely examples which could be understood by both the layman and the natural philosopher. He also attempted to establish some standards of quantification and thus to clear away the vagueness in the terminology then in use." (D.S.B.).

$4320.03

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. 2 volumes
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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. 2 volumes

By DARWIN, Charles

London: John Murray, 1871. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (189 x 129 mm). viii, 423 [1], 16; viii, [2], 475 [1], 16 pp., including half-titles, publisher's catalogue dated January 1871 at end of each volume, and several woodcut illustrations in text. Untrimmed and partially unopened. Original publishers green cloth (cloth little rubbed, spotted and soiled, corners bumped and frayed, slight wear to extremities), inner hinges cracked but holding. Internally very little age-toned, little foxing to endpapers, half-titles and adverts at end (else virtually unfoxed), short tear in blank fore-margin of vol. I, p.21/22. Provenance: Charles Robertson (inscribed on half-title and first flyleaf of vol. I). Still very good, unsophisticated set. ---- Freeman 245, Norman 599, Sparrow 48; Garrison-M. 170 - First edition, first issue of both volumes (with the errata on verso of title-leaf in vol. II and with the first word of p.297 "transmitted" in vol. I). Twelve years after the publication of the Origin, Darwin made good his promise to "throw light on the origin of man and his history" by publishing the present work, in which he compared man's physical and psychological traits to similar ones in apes and other animals, and showed how even man's mind and moral sense could have evolved through processes of natural selection. In discussing man's ancestry, Darwin did not claim that man was directly descended from apes as we know them today, but stated simply that the extinct ancestors of Homo sapiens would have to be classed among the primates. This statement was (and is) widely misinterpreted by the popular press, however, and caused a furor second only to that raised by the Origin. Darwin also added an essay on sexual selection, i.e. the preferential chances of mating that some individuals of one sex have over their rivals because of special characteristics, leading to the accentuation and transmission of those characteristics (Norman). 2500 copies of the first issue were published on February 24. The second issue was published the following month.

$6535.43

The Scientific Papers; Joint Scientific Papers
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The Scientific Papers; Joint Scientific Papers

By JOULE, James Prescott

London: The Physical Society of London, Taylor and Francis, 1884. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 2 vols., 1884-1887, folding diagrams (some neat reinforcements to verso), illustrations, lacking portrait frontispiece, a couple of leaves with chips and marginal losses, later half calf. - Sparrow, Milestones of Science 113. - First Edition. Joule's papers, originally published in various learned journals and even in daily newspapers, are here collected: and they constitute a contribution to scientific progress hardly surpassed in the nineteenth century. The most important papers are those on the nature of heat: and Joule was the first to prove, what Mayer in 1842--45 assumed, the equivalence of heat produced to energy employed. Joule's Laws are the basis of the whole principle of the conservation of energy established by Helmholtz in 1847 (see No. 39). Among the inventions thrown out in his researches are the galvanometer, the modern system of electrical units, the measurement of the velocity of a particle of gas, the modern system of electrical welding, the first displacement pump, and the absolute zero of temperature. - Visit our website for additional images and information.

$498.47

Theorie analytique de la chaleur
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Theorie analytique de la chaleur

By FOURIER, Jean Baptiste Joseph

Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1822. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. 4to (254x200 mm). [4], xxii, 639 [1] pp., including half title and two engraved plates at end. Contemporary half leather over marbled boards, spine lettered and decorated in gilt (spine very little rubbed, head of spine chipped), endpapers and cut edges marbled. Internally clean and unmarked with only very minor age-toning to few leaves and very little spotting in places. A clean, crisp and well-margined copy of a milestone work in mathematics. ---- Dibner 154; Sparrow 68; Norman 824; DSB V, pp. 93-99; Bibliotheca Mechanica, p.118; En Français dans le Texte 232; Honeyman 1358; Evans 37. - FIRST EDITION of the first mathematical study of heat diffusion, originally presented as a paper to the Academie des Sciences in 1807. Fourier showed that heat diffusion was subject to simple observable physical constants that could be expressed mathematically. While Galileo and Newton had revolutionized the study of nature by discerning mathematical laws in the movement of solids and fluids, this approach had not been satisfactorily applied to the study of heat before Fourier. His work had major repercussions for the development of both physics and pure mathematics: first, he extended the range of rational mechanics beyond the fields defined in Newton's Principia, establishing an essential branch of modern physics. Secondly, his invention of unprecedentedly powerful mathematical tools for the solution of equations "raised problems in mathematical analysis that motivated much of the leading work in that field for the rest of the century and beyond" (DSB). "Fourier's most celebrated work in which he succeeded in putting the science of heat on an analytical or mathematical basis" (Honeyman). "Fourier's application of new methods of mathematical analysis to the study of heat extended rational mechanics to fields outside of those defined in Newton's Principia, enabling the systematization of a wide range of phenomena. To further his study of heat, Fourier introduced the Fourier series and Fourier integrals." (Norman). "Fourier's methods find their widest application to problems of vibration such as in heat, sound and in fluid motion" (Dibner).

$17723.20

Philosophia Botanica in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adjectis figuris aeneis
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Philosophia Botanica in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adjectis figuris aeneis

By LINNAEUS, Carl

Stockholm: Godofr. Kiesewetter, 1751. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo (201 x 121 mm). [6], 362 pp. Engraved frontispiece portrait of the author engraved by I. M. Bernigeroth, 9 engraved plates, and 2 woodcuts in text. Contemporary half calf with gilt lettering piece to spine (boards and extremities rubbed). Internally little browned throughout, endpapers, title and preliminaries brown-burned in outer corners from tanned leather turn-ins, otherwise a fine, virtually unspotted and unmarked copy. Rare with the engraved frontispiece portrait. ---- Sparrow; Milestones of Science 135; Soulsby 437; Hulth 72; D.S.B. VIII, p.376. First edition. "Continuing his study on the classification of plants, Linnaeus published Philosophica botanica in 1751. In this he attempted to organize a natural system based on structure, but this work was never completed" (Sparrow). "In 1751 he published Philosophies botanica, his most influential work but actually only an expanded version of Fundamenta botanica. In it Linnaeus dealt with the theory of botany, the laws and rules that the botanist must follow in order to describe and name the plants correctly and to combine them into higher systematic categories." (DSB) The plates have also been used in "Hortus Cliffortianus".The engraved portrait, which was supplied to only a few copies, is present in this copy.

$1993.86

Traité de la lumière. Ou sont expliquees les causes de ce qui luy arrive dans la reflexion, & dans la refraction. . . Avec un discours de la cause de la pesanteur
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Traité de la lumière. Ou sont expliquees les causes de ce qui luy arrive dans la reflexion, & dans la refraction. . . Avec un discours de la cause de la pesanteur

By HUYGENS, Christiaan

Leiden: Pieter van der Aa, 1690. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. 4to (198 x 158 mm). [8], 1-124 [2] 125-128 [2] 129-180 pp. Signatures: *4 A-P4 Q2 R4 S2 T-Z4 Aa2. Two parts in one, separate title to part two, continuous pagination, general title printed in red and black, both titles with printer's woodcut device, woodcut head-pieces and initials, 89 woodcut diagrams in text. Bound in contemporary calf, spine rebacked and with gilt-lettered morocco label (little rubbing to board sand extremities, corners bumped), red-spinkled edges. Text little browned, marginal light dust soiling, first four leaves with just a few mm of light dampstaining at top edge, very minor occasional spotting, a few short tears not affecting text. A fine, unsophisticated, wide-margined and unmarked copy. ---- Dibner 145; Horblit 54; Norman 1139; Sparrow 111; Evans 32; D.S.B. VI, p.609-10; En francais dans le texte 25. FIRST EDITION of Huygens' pathbreaking exposition of his wave theory of light. Huygens had developed his theory in 1676 and 1677, and completed his Traite de la lumière in 1678. He read portions of the treatise to the Academy during the following year but left it unpublished, until Newton's Principia (1687) and a visit with Newton in 1689 stimulated him to have it printed at last. "Light, according to Huygens, is an irregular series of shock waves which proceeds with very great, but finite, velocity through the ether. This ether consists of uniformly minute, elastic particles compressed very close together. Light, therefore, is not an actual transference of matter but rather of a 'tendency to move,' a serial displacement similar to a collision which proceeds through a row of balls [...] Huygens therefore concluded that new wave fronts originate around each particle that is touched by light and extend outward from the particle in the form of hemispheres." (D.S.B.). Huygens was able to explain reflection and refraction using this theory, of which he became completely convinced in August 6, 1677, when he found that it explained the double refraction in Iceland spar. His view of light was opposed to the corpuscular theory of light advanced by Newton. In the second part of the work, the Discours de la cause de la pesanteur, written in 1669, Huygens expounded his vortex theory of gravity, a purely mechanistic theory that also contrasted markedly with Newton's notion of a universal attractional force intrinsic to matter. Indeed, Huygens added to the original treatise of 1669 a review of Newton's theory, rejecting it out of hand because of the impossibility of explaining it by any mechanical principle or law of motion. Huygens' work fell into oblivion during the following century, but his theory of light was confirmed at the beginning of the 19th century by Thomas Young, who used it to explain optical interference, and by Augustin-Jean Fresnel a few years later. Modern physics has reconciled Newton's and Huygens' theories in discerning both corpuscular and wave characteristics in the properties of light. There are two states of the two title leaves known. Our copy is with the author's initials only on both titles (no priority established).

$22154.00

Description des experiences de la machine aerostatique de MM. de Montgolfier et de celles auxquelles cette decouverte a donne lieu
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Description des experiences de la machine aerostatique de MM. de Montgolfier et de celles auxquelles cette decouverte a donne lieu

By FAUJAS DE SAINT-FOND, Barthelemy de

Paris: [Chardon for] Cuchet, 1783. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 1783-1784. 2 volumes, 8vo (204x127 mm). Vol. 1: [i-iii] iv-xl, [1] 2-299, [3], [4] pp., 9 engraved plates (plate v as frontispiece), folding table; Vol. 2: [2], [1] 2-24, *24-24*, 25-62, [67] 68-366, [2] pp., 5 engraved plates (plate I as frontispiece). Contemporary green paste paper boards (light chipping along spine and edges). Internally crisp, with only very minor occasional spotting and toning, offsetting to a few plates, title and frontispiece of vol. 2 slightly soiled, leaves partially untrimmed. Provenance: Gaston Tissandier (ex-libris to front paste-downs); Aéro-club de France (ex-libris stamp and affixed deaccession card to first fly-leaves). A fine, wide margined set with interesting provenance. ---- Dibner, Heralds of Science 179; PMM 229; Norman 769; Sparrow, Milestones of Science 179; Tissandier p.21 (this copy). - FIRST EDITION, second issue, with the four page supplement. "THE FIRST SERIOUS TREATISE ON AEROSTATION AS A PRACTICAL POSSIBILITY" (Printing and the Mind of Man), a detailed historical and technical account of the first balloon flights carried out in 1783 by the brothers Etienne and Joseph de Montgolfier, written by one of their principal sponsors, the geologist Faujas de Saint-Fond. The first successful balloon ascent took place in Annonay on June 5, 1783 using the Montgolfiere' technique of heating air with a straw fire sufficiently to make the balloons rise. Although subscribers preferred the hydrogen balloons invented by the physicist Jacques-A.-C. Charles, whose first launch was a 13-foot balloon from the Champ-de-Mars in August 1783, the Montgolfiers created a sensation by sending up ever more populated hot-air balloons; a trio of farm animals were the first mammals to fly, on September 19, and the first manned ascent followed two months later, on November 20, when Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandes ascended from the Bois de Boulogne and crossed Paris, covering a total distance of 5 1/2 miles in approximately 20 minutes. (Rozier was later killed in an attempted balloon crossing of the English Channel.) The second volume contains accounts of later balloon flights, all inspired by the Montgolfiers' initial successes - "their experiments were so successful, and so decisive, that it is inarguably to them that we owe all of the experiments that followed" (vol. 2, pp. 1-2) - including the first flight of a passenger-carrying hydrogen balloon, designed and manned by Jacques Charles, who on December 1, 1783 made a two-hour ascent from Paris, landing near a village 27 miles distant (this trip was also largely underwritten by Faujas de Saint-Fond). Charles's hydrogen balloon, constructed with the aid of the celebrated artisans the Robert brothers, formed the prototype for later modern balloon construction. The copy of Gaston Tissandier (1843-1899), French chemist, meteorologist and aviaton pioneer. He founded and edited the scientific magazine La Nature and wrote several books, including the important bibliography on aeronautics in 1887 ("Bibliographie aéronautique: Catalogue de livres d'histoire, de science, de voyages et de fantaisie, traitant de la navigation aérienne ou des aérostats"). His interest in meteorology led him to take up aviation. His first trip in the air was conducted at Calais in 1868 together with Claude-Jules Dufour, where his balloon drifted out over the sea and was brought back by an air stream of opposite direction in a higher layer of air. In September 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, he managed to leave the besieged Paris by balloon. His most adventurous airtrip took place in April 1875. Together with Joseph Croce-Spinelli and Théodore Sivel, he was able to reach in a balloon the unheard-of altitude of 8,600 metres. Both of his companions died from breathing the thin air. Tissandier survived, but became deaf. In 1883, Tissandier fit a Siemens electric motor to an airship, thus creating the first electric-powered flight. The technical problems encountered by the Montgolfiers and those who followed them are discussed by Tissandier in Histoire des ballons et des aéronautes célèbres (1887-89).

$7200.05

Arcana naturae detecta / Arcana naturae... detecta... editio altera / Continuatio epistolarum... editio altera / Continuatio arcanorum naturae detectorum
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Arcana naturae detecta / Arcana naturae... detecta... editio altera / Continuatio epistolarum... editio altera / Continuatio arcanorum naturae detectorum

By LEEUWENHOEK, Anton van

Leiden, 1695. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. [Works, in Latin]. I. Arcana naturae detecta. Leiden: Henrik van Kroonevelt, 1695. [8], 568, [14] pages, including engraved additional title, 27 engraved plates of which 15 are folding and several engraved illustrations in text. Paper only very little browned, very minor spotting, plate to p.548 shaved some mm into the plate mark, ownership signature to title page. II. Arcana naturae, ope & beneficio exquisitissimorum microscopiorum. ... una cum discursu & ulteriori dilucidatione; epistolis suis ad ... philosophorum collegium ... editio altera. Leiden: Cornelius Boutestein, 1696. [12], 3-58 (i.e. 64), 258 (i.e. 260) pp., including etched additional title by Romeyn de Hooghe, 11 engraved plates of which 5 are folding and several engraved illustrations in text. Title page soiled and with ownership inscription. [bound with] III. Continuatio epistolarum... editio altera. Leiden: Cornelius Boutestein, 1696. [2], 124 pp., 10 engraved plates of which 2 are folding. [bound with] IV. Continuatio arcanorum naturae detectorum. Leiden: Henrik van Kroonevelt, 1697. [2], 192, [8] pp., 7 engraved plates, one folding. Four works bound in two volumes. 4to (195x153 mm). Contemporary mottled calf with 5 raised bands richly gilt in compartments (boards rubbed, extremities worn, corners bumped, Vol. 1 front joint cracked at top), light toning of paper (IV a bit heavier), scattered very minor spotting and stains. Provenance: Signature of Thomas Molyneux in both volumes (p.1 of I, p.3 of II) and marginalia in his hand to p.564 of I, p.1 and final fly leaf verso of IV. Kenneth Rapoport, ex-libris to front paste downs of both vols. The four works constitute the complete set of Leeuwenhoek's letters 28 to 107 in Latin. The remaining letters in Latin were not published before 1719. I. Dobell 25; Norman 1319; PMM 166; Sparrow 128; NLM/Krivatsy 6785; Waller 10877. - FIRST EDITION OF LETTERS 84-92 and first Latin edition of letters 32-33, 37, 39-41, and 61-83. II. Dobell 22 (first edition only); Waller 10878; Norman 1320 (3rd edition). - Dobell, Antony van Leeuwenhoek and his "little animals" London, 1932 (Dobell 25a), confusingly states that this is the second edition of Arcana naturae detecta (1695), whereas it is in fact the second edition of Anatomia seu interiora rerum (1687) containing letters 28-31, 34-36, 38, and 42-52. III. Dobell 24(a); Waller 10883. - Second Latin edition (first published in 1689). Contains letters 53-60, in order, with continous pagination but unnumbered. IV. Dobell 26; Eimas Heirs 590; Norman 1321; Waller 10880; Wellcome III, p.477. - First Latin edition. A continuation of the Arcana naturae detecta (1695). Contains letters 93-107, all numbered and with continous pagination. Leeuwenhoek was one of the first and greatest microbiologists. He discovered protozoa and bacteria and was the first to describe spermatozoa and red blood corpuscles. The first independent part of this celebrated collection of letters addressed to the Royal Society.These letters incorporate his epoch-making experiments with the MICROSCOPE, and his researches and discoveries opened up a new era of scientific investigation and earned him the title "Father of Protozoology and Bacteriology". Many of the letters are of outstanding importance and include his account of the animalcula. The personal copy of Thomas Molyneux (1661-1733), Irish physician, professor of Physic at Trinity College and fellow of the Royal Society of London. The visit of Molyneux to Leeuwenhoek's home in 1685 on behalf of the Royal Society to inspect his microscopes is well documented in the literature. Molyneux gave a report of his visit in a letter dated February 13, to the secretary of the Royal Society, Francis Aston. It was read at a February meeting: "I have hitherto delayed, answering your last, because I could not give you an account of Mynheer LEEWENHOECK; but last week I was to wait upon him in your name: he shewed me several things through his microscopes, which 'tis in vain to mention here, since he himself has sent you all their descriptions at large. As to his microscopes themselves, those, which he shewed me, in number at least a dozen, were all of one sort, consisting only of one small glass, ground, (this I mention because 'tis generally thought his microfcopes are blown at a lamp, those I saw, I am sure, are not) placed between two thin flat plates of brafs, about an inch broad, and an inch and a half long. In these two plates there were two apertures, one before, the other behind the glass, which were larger or smaller, as the glass was more or less convex, or as it magnified. Just opposite to these apertures on one side was placed sometimes a needle, sometimes a slender flat body of glass or opaque matter, as the occasion required, upon which, or to its apex, he fixes whatever object he has to look upon; then holding it up against the light, by help of two small screws, he places it just in the focus of his glass, and then makes his observations. Such were the microscopes, which I saw, and these are they he shews to the curious that come and visit him; but besides these, he told me he had another sort, which no man living had looked through setting aside himself; these he reserves for his own private observations wholly, and he assured me they performed far beyond any, that he had shewed me yet; but would not allow me a sight of them, so all I can do is barely to believe, for I can plead no experience in the matter. As for the microscopes I looked through, they do not magnify much, if anything, more than several glasses I have seen, both in England, and Ireland: but in one particular, I must needs say, they far surpass them all, that is in their extreme clearness, and their representing all objects so extrordinary distinctly, for I remember we were in a dark room with only one window, and the sun too, was then off of that, yet the objects appeared more fair and clear, then any I have seen through microscopes, though the sun shone full upon them, or though they received more then ordinary light by help of reflective specula or otherwise: So that I imagine 'tis chiefly, if not alone in this particular, that his glasses exceeds all others, which generally the more they magnify the more obscure they represent the object; and his only secret I believe, is making clearer glasses, and giving them a better polish then others can do. I found him a very civil complaisant man, and doubtless of great natural abilities; but, contrary to my expectations, quite a stranger to letters, master neither of Latin, French or English, or any other of the modern tongues besides his own, which is a great hindrance to him in his reasonings uppon his observations, for being ignorant of all other mens thoughts, he is wholly trusting to his own, which, I observe, now and then lead him into extravagancies, and suggest very odd accounts of things, nay, sometimes such, as are wholy irreconsileable with all truth. You see, Sir, how freely I give you my thoughts of him, because you desired it." (Dobell, p.57).

$13846.25

Experimenta circa effectum, etc. Expériences sur l'effet du conflict électrique sur l'aiguille aimantée, pp. 417-425
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Experimenta circa effectum, etc. Expériences sur l'effet du conflict électrique sur l'aiguille aimantée, pp. 417-425

By OERSTED, Hans Christian

Paris: Crochard, 1820. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Near Fine. 1st Edition. Hardcover. "8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾"" tall" "In: Annales de chimie et de physique, par MM. Gay-Lussac et Arago. 8vo (210x135 mm). Whole volume 14 bound with vol. 13, 448 pp. and 3 plates. Contemporary half leather with gilt spine and two labels, somewhat rubbed. Small Jesuit rubber stamp to title pages. A fine copy. ---- PMM 282, Dibner 61, Sparrow 152, Norman 1606 (all citing private print); DSB X, 185. First French edition of Oersted's Latin paper. ""The 'Experimenta...' opened a new epoch in the history of physics. From it followed the creation of electrodynamics by Ampère and Faraday's 'Experimental Researches in Electricity'"" (DSB)."

$1772.32

The Bakerian Lecture, on Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity
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The Bakerian Lecture, on Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity

By DAVY, Humphry

London, 1807. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Very Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. Journal extract from: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London for the Year 1806, Vol. 97, Part One, published 1807. Slim 4to, pp. 1-56. Volume title, plus engraved plate at rear, some spotting, recent blue buckram gilt. ---- Sparrow 52, PMM 255 (remark) - Davy found that when he passed electrical current through some substances, these substances decomposed, (a process later called electrolysis). Davy must have known of Lavoisier's suggestion that the alkali earths were s of unknown metals. At first, he tried to separate the metals by electrolyzing aqueous solutions of the alkalis, but this yielded only hydrogen gas. He then tried passing current through molten compounds, and his persistence was rewarded when he was able to separate globules of pure metal by this means. His first successes came in 1807 with the separation of potassium from molten potash and of sodium from common salt. He described potassium as particles which, when thrown into water, "skimmed about excitedly with a hissing sound, and soon burned with a lovely lavender light." Dr. John Davy, Humphry's brother, said that Humphry "danced around and was delirious with joy" at his discovery. These results were presented in his second Bakerian lecture of November, 1807.

$886.16

Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie
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Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie

By LIEBIG, Justus

Braunschweig: Verlag Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn, 1842. 1st Edition. Hardcover. Good. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (207x132 mm). xvi, [2], 342, [2] pp. including half title. Contemporary cardboard with handwritten paper label; interior foxed throughout, half title with chipping to fore-edge. ---- Garrison-Morton 677; PMM 310b; Waller 5796; Wellcome III, p. 515; Norman 1351; Sparrow 133. - FIRST EDITION. "With this book Liebig introduced the concept of metabolism into physiology" (Garrison-Morton). Liebig envisioned his book, titled Die Thierchemie in later editions, as a complement to his researches into the chemistry of plants. In it he showed, "like Lavoisier, that animal heat is not innate, but the result of combustion, introduced the concept of metabolism (Stoffwechsel); and classified animal foodstuffs as fats, carbohydrates and proteins according to their function. He thus became the founder of the modern science of nutrition" (PMM). The work aroused "sharply divergent reactions... Even those who reacted against it, however, began to view the chemical phenomena of life differently than they had before, for Liebig had provided one of the first comprehensive pictures of the overall meaning of the ceaseless chemical exchanges which form an integral part of the vital processes... As with his agricultural chemistry, Liebig's physiological writings provided an impetus which outlasted the refutation of some of his specific theories" (DSB).

$609.24

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